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Knowledge and innovation
InDUI – Innovationsindikatorik für den Doing-Using-Interacting-Mode von KMU

Research Focus on Knowledge and Innovation

Research projects

InDUI – Setting indicators to measure innovations for the Doing-Using-Interacting-Mode of SME

Leaders:  Prof. Dr. Rolf Sternberg
Team:  Tatjana Bennat
Year:  2021
Sponsors:  Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF)
Lifespan:  2017 - 2021
Is Finished:  yes
More Link https://indui.wordpress.com/

 

In order to quantify innovation efforts, to make them comparable and to assess the effects of public innovations policies, a appropriate set of i ndicators is needed . However, the current measuring methods are insuffucient. The usual focus on input indicators like R&D expenditures and output indicators like numbe rof patent applications or the turnover share of product innovations fall short, as they only cover the formal part of innovation activities ignoring the informal process related to learning and knowledge exchange. However, the latter are very important for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), a conseuence of which is that the current measuring methods lead to a ystematic underestimation of the innovation efforts of SME. This paucity of indicators should be reduced in this research project. InDUI intends to to refine and expand the available set of indicators of i nformal, non R&D-based learning and innvating processes and, by doing so, to make new attempts of evidence-based evaluations of public research and innovations support policies accessible.

The conceptual basis of the project is the differnetiation between two fundamental learning and innovation modes – the „Science, Technology and Innovation -Mode“ (STI-Mod e) characterised by formal R&D processe s, explicit scientific-technical knowledge and iInnovations with a high degree of newness   and the  „Doing, Using and Interacting-Mode“ (DUI-Mode) based upon informal, non R&D driven learning processes, implicit tacit knowledge and incremental innovations.

The InDUI research project specifies the empirical measurement of DUI innovation activities . The focus will be on SME, as small enterprises' technological and non-technological innovations are rarely based on own, formal R&D. The aim of InDUI is to develop a set of indicators to measure the innovation output of such enterprises and of regional innovation systems, that are particularly characterized by the DUI mode. The set of i ndicators will be based upon a combination of qualitative and quantitative measuring methods and addresses three levels of protagonists:

  • the m icro level: entrepreneurs and key personnel relevant for innovation,
  • the m eso level: the enterprise, where individuals interact in,
  • the mac ro level: the (sub-national) region, where entrerprises and institutions interact in.

The InDUI project is organized as a consortium of three partners: Prof. K. Bizer, Chair of Economic Policy and SME Research (Georg-August Universität Göttingen) together with Dr. J. Thomä and Dr. T. Proeger of  Institute of Small Business Economics (ifh) in Göttingen, Prof. U. Cantner, Chair of Economics/Microeceonomics (Friedrich Schiller Universität Jena), and Prof. R. Sternberg of the Department of Economic Geography, Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography (Leibniz Universität Hannover).

The (sub)project assigned to the Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography (Leibniz Universität Hannover) will analyze and collect (primarily qualitative) data on the extent, type and structure of DUI innovation s and the related learning processes and behavioural patterns in SME located in the region of Hanover. The main emphasis of this (sub)project will be on the relevance of regional innovation networks as well as on knowledge-spillover effects. The empirical findings will later be combined with laboratory experiments by the project partners in Göttingen and will be used to create new indicators. Additionally the involved economic geographers from Hanover are, within the consortium, responsible for the interregional comparisons of the study regions Hanover, Göttingen a nd Jena (based upon micro level data of entrepreneurs as well as on meso level data of enterprises. This InDUI methodology will help to select individual com­ponents out of the set of indicators and, finally, to check the meausrement performance of each indicator.

Publications

  • Alhusen, H.; Bennat, T.; Bizer, K.; Cantner, U.; Kalthaus, M.; Proeger, T.; Sternberg, R.; Töpfer, S. (2021): A new measurement conception for the ‘Doing-Using-Interacting’ mode of innovation. Research Policy 50(4), 104214. DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2021.104214
  • Bennat, T. (2021): High Innovativeness of SMEs and the Configuration of Learning‑by‑Doing, Learning‑by‑Using, Learning‑by‑Interacting, and Learning‑by‑Science: a Regional Comparison Applying Fuzzy Qualitative Comparative Analysis. Journal of the Knowledge Economy. DOI: 10.1007/s13132-021-00774-1
  • Alhusen, H.; Bäumle, P.; Bizer, K.; Cantner, U.; Sternberg, R. (2021): Einleitung. Der Doing-Using-Interacting-Modus der Innovationstätigkeit und seine Bedeutung für Kleine und mittlere Unternehmen. In: Bennat, T., Bizer, K., Cantner, U., Lange, J., Sternberg, R.; Proeger, T., Hg.): The innovation mode of doing, using and interacting: Learning within regions, 7-8. Rehburg-Loccum 2021 (= Loccumer Protokolle, Band 09/2021).
  • Alhusen, H.; Bäumle, P.; Bizer, K.; Cantner, U.; Sternberg, R. (2021): Conference report. The innovation mode of doing, using and interacting: Learning within regions. In: Bennat, T., Bizer, K., Cantner, U., Lange, J., Sternberg, R.; Proeger, T., Hg.): The innovation mode of doing, using and interacting: Learning within regions, 9-22. Rehburg-Loccum 2021 (= Loccumer Protokolle, Band 09/2021).
  • Bennat, T.; Bizer, K.;Cantner, U.; Lange, J.; Sternberg, R.; Proeger, T. (Hg.): (2021): The innovation mode of doing, using and interacting: Learning within regions. Rehburg-Loccum 2021 (= Loccumer Protokolle, Band 09/2021).
  • Sternberg, R. (2020): Innovations(t)räume. Unimagazin- Forschungsmagazin der Leibniz Universität Hannover 3-4, 28-30.
  • Alhusen, H.; Bennat, T. (2020): Combinatorial innovation modes in SMEs: mechanisms integrating STI processes into DUI mode learning and the role of regional innovation policy. European Planning Studies.DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2020.1786009
  • Bennat, T.; Sternberg, R. (2020): Knowledge bases in German regions: what hinders combinatorial knowledge dynamics and how regional innovation policies may help. European Planning Studies 28(2), 319-339. DOI: 10.1080/09654313.2019.1656168


Presentations to Scientific Audiences

  • Sternberg, R.: Innovation policy – designed for lagging regions. Podium discussion at Policy-Workshop "Innovation Barriers and Innovation Policy in Lagging Regions" at the Philipps-University Marburg. Marburg 15.6.2021.
  • Sternberg, R.: How to adequately measure innovation activities of small and medium-sized enterprises? New indicators addressing the ‘Doing-Using-Interacting’ mode of innovation. Workshop on "Advancing Indicators of Regional Structural Change". Jena 19.3.2021.
  • Sternberg, R.; Bennat, T.: Innovating by interacting in SMEs: actors and barriers. Research Conference on "The Innovation Mode of Doing, Using and Interacting – Learning within Regions". Loccum (Deutschland) 22.02.2021.
  • Bennat, T.: How top-executives matter for DUI mode innovation: CEO characteristics and their influence on innovation activities in non-R&D-based SMEs. 5TH GEOGRAPHY OF INNOVATION CONFERENCE 2020, Stavanger, Norway, 29.01.2020.
  • Sternberg, R.: Unternehmensexterne DUI-Prozesse von KMU. Beiratsitzung des Verbundprojekts „InDUI - Innovationsindikatorik für den Doing-Using-Interacting-Mode von KMU". Göttingen, 18.11.2019.
  • Sternberg, R.; Bennat, T.: Knowledge bases in German regions: What hinders combinatorial knowledge dynamics and how regional innovation policies may help. 22nd Uddevalla Symposium 2019, L'Aquila (Italien), 27.6.2019.
  • Bennat, T.: Forschung zur besseren Innovationsmessung im deutschen Mittelstand. IIDEOS Kolloquium Kassel, 19.02.2019.
  • Bennat, T.: Zur Geographie von Wissensbasen in deutschen Regionen und der Rolle von Regionalpolitik. AK Industrie Geographie Naurod-Niedernhausen, 16.-17.11.2018.
  • Bennat, T.: Die Rolle von KMU in Regionalen Innovationssystemen. ifh-Beraterseminar „Region und Regionalität - Eine Chance für das Handwerk?“, Erfurt, 05.11.2018.
  • Bennat, T.: Exploratory evidence on the measurement of learning by doing-using-interacting. Jena Lecture Series in Economic Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07.- 08.05.2018.